Infertility Uncovered

Infertility Awareness Week

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), ‘infertility is a disease of the reproductive system, defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse’1. Worldwide, the number of people affected by infertility is over 48.5 million people2. 1 in 8 couples in the US and 1 in 7 couples in the UK face infertility3,4. In developing countries, infertility rate is even higher, with 1 in 4 couples being affected5.

A couple with a normal functioning reproductive system has a 20-25% chance of conceiving at any given month6. After 6 months of trying, 60% of those couples will conceive without medical assistance6. Causes of infertility can vary, and a personal, thorough clinical examination and family history must be taken by a specialist. Reasons for infertility can be genetic due to a translocation (incorrect rearrangement of chromosomes) in one of the partners, or due to hormonal levels, like ovulatory disorders, poor response to fertility treatments, premature ovarian failure or polycystic ovarian syndrome. Also, structural problems of the uterus, cervical factors or issues with the sperm production or transportation to the egg, immunologic disorders, and environmental factors can affect fertility. Secondary infertility, the inability to get pregnant naturally after having a baby without difficulty, is also seen. Lastly, infertility could be unexplained.

Infertility affects both men and women equally. Approximately 30% of infertility is due to female factor and 30% due to male factor. The remaining cases are from problems in both partners, or due to unexplained etiology7. The most important contributing factor for infertility is maternal age. Paternal age plays a role, but not as central. As women are born with all their eggs, their quantity and quality decreases overtime. Consequently, it is conceivably harder for women who are older to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. In general, guidelines recommend seeing a fertility specialist after 12 months of unsuccessful trying, women over the age of 35 are advised to consult a specialist after 6 months – and not wait for a year.

Couples or people who know they might be affected by infertility, if they have experienced multiple miscarriages or have known risk factors for infertility, like endometriosis, may also consult their doctor and seek an expert’s opinion as early as they wish. Couples have a right to advocate for themselves, seek treatment, explore their options – fertility treatments, surrogacy, adoption – and take their own decisions for their families, even if these decisions are taking no actions at all.

The perceived stigma surrounding infertility often prevents people from talking about, or admitting of their fertility challenges. The desire to have children and the inability to accept infertility as a disease of the reproductive system doesn’t only feel like a biological fail, but a personal one. Infertility is unlike other medical conditions with defined pathways and mechanisms of action. Treatment might need to be emotional as well as physical, and above all, personal. As friends, family or society, all we can do is to provide emotional support, promote discussion and understanding in a way that enables better policies and more affordable and accessible fertility treatments on this global public health issue.

This year, the US National Infertility Awareness Week (NIAW), founded in 1989 by Resolve, celebrates 30 years. Resolve’s aims are to enhance public understanding on infertility, ensure couples wishing to start a family know the guidelines, and educate lawmakers on the impact of infertility policies. These empower Resolve’s purpose, which is to eliminate the barriers and the stigmas that stand in the way of building families.

For information on support groups, please visit: https://fertilitynetworkuk.org/how-we-can-help/support-groups/, https://infertilityawareness.org/, or https://resolve.org/.

References:

  1. Zegers-Hochschild F. et al. (2009) ‘International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology, 2009
  2. Mascarenhas M. et al. (2012) ‘National, regional and global trends in Infertility prevalence since 1990: A systematic analysis of 277 health surveys’. PLoS Medicine; 9:e1001356.
  3. 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, CDC (2017) https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg/key_statistics/i.htm#infertility
  4. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Manchester (2013) Fertility: Assessment and Treatment for People with Fertility Problems. NICE Clinical Guideline.
  5. World Health Organization, Sexual and Reproductive Health (2019), https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/infertility/burden/en/
  6. Resolve (2019), https://resolve.org/infertility-101/what-is-infertility/fast-facts/
  7. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Reproductive Facts, (2019), https://www.reproductivefacts.org/faqs/frequently-asked-questions-about-infertility/


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NIPD Genetics - Privacy Policy

General Statement

This Privacy Policy applies only to www.nipd.com and its subdomains (hereafter collectively referred to as “Sites") that link to this policy. NIPD Genetics Sites are owned by NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd and are operated by NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd and on occasion by a third-party that is responsible for the technical maintenance of the Sites.

If, you do not agree with this Privacy Policy, please do not access or use any of NIPD Genetics Sites.

NIPD Genetics values your interest in NIPD Genetics, its products and its services. NIPD Genetics takes the protection of your data seriously.

Personal data for purposes of this Privacy Policy, is any information by which you can be individually identified, including, but not limited to, your name, profession, address, e-mail address, and telephone number.

You may contact NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd at
NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd
Neas Engomis 31
Engomi, Nicosia
2409, Cyprus

NIPD Genetics Data Protection Officer can be reached at dpo@nipd.com

This Privacy Policy applies only to the Sites as defined above and which are operated by NIPD Genetics. The NIPD Genetics Privacy Policy seeks to inform the users of its Sites of the following:

NIPD Genetics will not use or share your information with anyone, except as described in this Privacy Policy. This Privacy Policy does not apply to any information we might collect by other digital and offline means and or from other digital and offline sources. The use of information collected through our Sites shall be limited to the purposes under this Privacy Policy and our Terms of Use to customers.

This page informs you of our policies regarding the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data when you use our Sites and the choices you have associated with that data.

We use your data to provide and improve the Sites. By using the Sites, you agree to the collection and use of information in accordance with this policy. Unless otherwise defined in this Privacy Policy, terms used in this Privacy Policy have the same meanings as in our Terms and Conditions, accessible from www.nipd.com

Type of personal information NIPD Genetics may collect through its Sites

Information Collection And Use

We collect several different types of information for various purposes to provide and improve our Sites and services to you.

Personal Data

While using NIPD Genetics Sites, you may be asked to provide NIPD Genetics certain personally identifiable information that can be used to contact or identify you ("Personal Information"). Personal Information that might be used to identify you includes, but is not limited to:

If you send us a query via our Contact us form, your email address, the content and any follow up emails are retained indefinitely.

Cookies and Usage Data

Usage Data

We may also collect information how the Sites are accessed and used ("Usage Data"). This Usage Data may include information such as your computer's Internet Protocol address (e.g. IP address), browser type, browser version, the pages of our Sites that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.

Tracking & Cookies Data

We use cookies and similar tracking technologies to track the activity on our Sites and hold certain information.

Cookies are files with small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifier. Cookies are sent to your browser from a website and stored on your device. Tracking technologies also used are beacons, tags, and scripts to collect and track information and to improve and analyze our Sites.

You can instruct your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, if you do not accept cookies, you may not be able to use some portions of our Sites.

Examples of Cookies we use:

Session Cookies. We use Session Cookies to operate our Sites.

Preference Cookies. We use Preference Cookies to remember your preferences and various settings.

Security Cookies. We use Security Cookies for security purposes.

Visitor behavior cookies. To understand how visitors use and navigate the Sites

Keyword cookies. To understand how visitors discover the Sites.

Use of Data

www.nipd.com uses the collected data for various purposes:

Transfer of Data

Your information, including personal data, may be transferred to — and maintained on — computers located outside of your province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ than those from your jurisdiction.

If you are located outside Cyprus and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including personal data, to Cyprus and process it there.

Your consent to this Privacy Policy followed by your submission of such information represents your agreement to that transfer.

www.nipd.com will take all reasonable steps necessary to ensure that your data is treated securely and in accordance with this Privacy Policy and no transfer of your personal data will take place to an organization or a country unless there are adequate controls in place including the security of your data and other personal information.

Disclosure of Data

NIPD Genetics complies with the protection of personal data regulation and will not sale or trade your personal data.

NIPD Genetics may disclose your personal data in the good faith belief that such action is necessary to:

Security of Data

The security of your data is important to us, but remember that no method of transmission over the Internet, or method of electronic storage is 100% secure. While we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your Personal Data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.

Service Providers

We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate, maintain or operate our Sites ("Service Providers"), to provide the SItes on our behalf, to perform service-related services or to assist us in analyzing how our Sites is used.

These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.

Analytics

We may use third-party Service Providers to monitor and analyze the use of our Sites.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google uses the data collected to track and monitor the use of our Service. This data is shared with other Google services. Google may use the collected data to contextualize and personalize the ads of its own advertising network.

You can opt-out of having made your activity on the Service available to Google Analytics by installing the Google Analytics opt-out browser add-on. The add-on prevents the Google Analytics JavaScript (ga.js, analytics.js, and dc.js) from sharing information with Google Analytics about visits activity.

For more information on the privacy practices of Google, please visit the Google Privacy & Terms web page

Access to your personal data, correction, deletion, and Opting Out

You have the right to review, update or delete any of your personal data by sending a request at NIPD Genetics Personal Data Officer pdo@nipd.com

Links to Other Sites

Our Sites may contain links to other sites that are not operated by us. If you click on a third-party link, you will be directed to that third party's site. We strongly advise you to review the Privacy Policy of every site you visit.

We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third-party sites or services.

Children's Privacy

Our Service does not address anyone under the age of 18 ("Children").

We do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from anyone under the age of 18. If you are a parent or guardian and you are aware that your Children has provided us with Personal Data, please contact us. If we become aware that we have collected Personal Data from children without verification of parental consent, we take steps to remove that information from our servers.

Changes to This Privacy Policy

We may update our Privacy Policy from time to time. We will notify you of any changes by posting the new Privacy Policy on this page.

We will let you know via email and/or a prominent notice on our Service, prior to the change becoming effective and update the "effective date" at the top of this Privacy Policy.

You are advised to review this Privacy Policy periodically for any changes. Changes to this Privacy Policy are effective when they are posted on this page.

Contact Us

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, please contact pdo@nipd.com

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