Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. It develops due to the uncontrollable growth of cells in the prostate, a walnut-sized organ found underneath the bladder and around the urethra in men. The prostate grows with age, and its main function is to help in semen production.
Every year, over 1.2 million men are diagnosed with prostate cancer. Generally, 1 in 9 men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime – and for unknown reasons, 1 in 4 African American men. Typically described as ‘an older man’s cancer’, prostate cancer is rarely diagnosed in men under 50 years of age, with 66 years old being the average age of diagnosis. Prostate cancer risk increases exponentially with age – while men under 50 have 1 in 350 chance of developing prostate cancer, men between 50 and 59 years old have 1 in 52 chance and men over 60 years old have 1 in 19 chance. Besides racial background and age, smoking, obesity, geographical location – Asians have a significantly lower prostate cancer incidence than that of Europeans and African Americans – and family history are important risk factors for prostate cancer. The risk is higher for men with a first degree relative diagnosed with cancer, specifically at a young age. The risk increases when several relatives have been affected by cancer; when the mother or sister has been diagnosed with breast cancer; or when the father or brother has been diagnosed with prostate cancer. When cancer clusters in families like this it is usually caused by a germline mutation – an inherited genetic change that raises a person’s chance of developing cancer. Up to 10% of prostate cancers can be due to germline mutations and are referred to as ‘hereditary cancers’. Hereditary cancer screening is available to test for these mutations in individuals with a family history of cancer to let them know early of their risk, allow them to take informed decisions about their treatment and have better medical care.
If detected early, when the cancer is still localized, prostate cancer has excellent prognosis with the 5-year survival rate being nearly 100%. When the cancer has metastasized – spread to other areas and organs beyond its original location – survival rate falls by a third. Detecting prostate cancer early is difficult because there are no symptoms during the early stages. As the tumor on the prostate starts small – and doesn’t affect or press on any other organs – there rarely is any pain or discomfort. Symptoms may be noticeable as the tumor gets bigger and possibly starts pressing on the urethra. These may include an increased need to urinate, a feeling that the bladder hasn’t emptied, a weak flow while urinating, difficulty when starting to urinate and painful urination. Back pain, erectile dysfunction, blood in the urine or semen, and unexplained weight loss could appear at more advanced stages of the disease. These symptoms may be prompted by other causes apart from prostate cancer – prostatitis or prostate enlargement – so it’s important for men to consult their healthcare provider if they experience anything unusual.
The most common tests to detect prostate cancer include physical examination of the prostate and blood tests to measure the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA protein is described as ‘prostate-specific’, but not ‘cancer-specific’ – its levels can be raised by other conditions as well. When PSA levels are raised, an MRI or a biopsy of the prostate are indicated to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for prostate cancer varies. As screening tests and treatment options can have possible painful side-effects, it is important for the patient and their healthcare provider to take the general wellbeing and age of the patient into consideration when evaluating how to proceed with screening and treatment. If the cancer is detected at early stages and is slow growing, depending on the circumstances, it may be more beneficial to do nothing than to risk possible side-effects. ‘Watchful waiting’ and ‘active surveillance’ are terms describing this course of action. Depending on the treatment choice, side effects could include loss of bladder control, need to urinate more often, bowel problems and erectile dysfunction.
40 years ago, the cure rate for prostate cancer was 67%. Today, this rate is nearly 100% due to technological advancements allowing for proper screening and early detection. While prostate cancer is one of the commonest cancers in incidence worldwide, it is important to remember that being mindful of risk factors, routine screening and early detection save lives.
PreSENTIA hereditary cancer test panels, offered by NIPD Genetics, can detect numerous inherited genetic changes that could cause cancer in the future. PreSENTIA offers an extensive portfolio of 19 hereditary cancer test panels. To learn more please visit www.nipd.com. Hereditary cancer testing, possible next steps and clinical management should always be fully discussed with your healthcare provider.
NIPD Genetics values your interest in NIPD Genetics, its products and its services. NIPD Genetics takes the protection of your data seriously.
You may contact NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd at NIPD Genetics Public Company Ltd Neas Engomis 31 Engomi, Nicosia 2409, Cyprus
NIPD Genetics Data Protection Officer can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Type of personal information NIPD Genetics may collect through its Sites
The ways by which NIPD Genetics collects, uses or shares such information
Steps NIPD Genetics takes to protect its sites’ users personal information
This page informs you of our policies regarding the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data when you use our Sites and the choices you have associated with that data.
Type of personal information NIPD Genetics may collect through its Sites
Information Collection And Use
We collect several different types of information for various purposes to provide and improve our Sites and services to you.
While using NIPD Genetics Sites, you may be asked to provide NIPD Genetics certain personally identifiable information that can be used to contact or identify you ("Personal Information"). Personal Information that might be used to identify you includes, but is not limited to:
First name and last name
Address, State, Province, ZIP/Postal code, City
If you send us a query via our Contact us form, your email address, the content and any follow up emails are retained indefinitely.
Cookies and Usage Data
We may also collect information how the Sites are accessed and used ("Usage Data"). This Usage Data may include information such as your computer's Internet Protocol address (e.g. IP address), browser type, browser version, the pages of our Sites that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.
Tracking & Cookies Data
Cookies are files with small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifier. Cookies are sent to your browser from a website and stored on your device. Tracking technologies also used are beacons, tags, and scripts to collect and track information and to improve and analyze our Sites.
You can instruct your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, if you do not accept cookies, you may not be able to use some portions of our Sites.
Examples of Cookies we use:
Session Cookies. We use Session Cookies to operate our Sites.
Preference Cookies. We use Preference Cookies to remember your preferences and various settings.
Security Cookies. We use Security Cookies for security purposes.
Visitor behavior cookies. To understand how visitors use and navigate the Sites
Keyword cookies. To understand how visitors discover the Sites.
Use of Data
www.nipd.com uses the collected data for various purposes:
To provide and maintain the Sites
To notify you about changes to our Sites
To allow you to participate in interactive features of our Sites when you choose to do so
To provide customer care and support
To provide analysis or valuable information so that we can improve the Sites
To monitor the usage of the Sites
To detect, prevent and address technical issues
Transfer of Data
Your information, including personal data, may be transferred to — and maintained on — computers located outside of your province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ than those from your jurisdiction.
If you are located outside Cyprus and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including personal data, to Cyprus and process it there.
Disclosure of Data
NIPD Genetics complies with the protection of personal data regulation and will not sale or trade your personal data.
NIPD Genetics may disclose your personal data in the good faith belief that such action is necessary to:
To comply with a legal obligation
To protect and defend the rights or property of www.nipd.com
To prevent or investigate possible wrongdoing in connection with the Sites
To protect the personal safety of users of the Sites or the public
To protect against legal liability
Security of Data
The security of your data is important to us, but remember that no method of transmission over the Internet, or method of electronic storage is 100% secure. While we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your Personal Data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.
We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate, maintain or operate our Sites ("Service Providers"), to provide the SItes on our behalf, to perform service-related services or to assist us in analyzing how our Sites is used.
These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.
We may use third-party Service Providers to monitor and analyze the use of our Sites.
Google Analytics is a web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google uses the data collected to track and monitor the use of our Service. This data is shared with other Google services. Google may use the collected data to contextualize and personalize the ads of its own advertising network.
Access to your personal data, correction, deletion, and Opting Out
You have the right to review, update or delete any of your personal data by sending a request at NIPD Genetics Personal Data Officer email@example.com
Links to Other Sites
We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third-party sites or services.
Our Service does not address anyone under the age of 18 ("Children").
We do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from anyone under the age of 18. If you are a parent or guardian and you are aware that your Children has provided us with Personal Data, please contact us. If we become aware that we have collected Personal Data from children without verification of parental consent, we take steps to remove that information from our servers.